When Florida started experimenting
with sales tax holidays in the late 1990s and early 2000s, something
interesting happened. According to a paper by four economists at the University of West Florida, some businesses actually increased
their prices during the holidays, thus likely capturing a portion of
the savings that the policy was supposed to create for consumers.
That’s just one of the many potential downsides that these tax-free weekends have: They’re gimmicky ways for states to dodge the tough work of making their regular taxes less harmful, and they don’t deliver many benefits for consumers. It’s always nice to be able to pay a little bit less taxes, of course, but research shows that the bulk of sales tax holidays’ benefits don’t go to the people most hurt by sales taxes, that they often impose higher compliance costs on small businesses, and that they distract states from more substantive reforms of their burdensome tax codes.
Numerous states will have sales tax holidays this month. Most will primarily exclude common back-to-school purchases, such as backpacks and school supplies, while some states have more expansive exemptions.
These weekends are supposed to help working-class families afford basic necessities and increase consumer spending. But creating a holiday in which the government doesn’t collect sales taxes for a couple days doesn’t benefit lower-income people as much as just slightly reducing the sales tax rate year-round would.
Why? Because people living paycheck-to-paycheck can’t afford to time their purchases to take advantage of the holiday. A 2010 study from the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago found that households with more than $70,000 in annual income benefit the most, thanks to their greater ability to time their purchases.
Nor do sales tax holidays help increase consumer spending by much—they mostly just lead consumers to time their spending differently. And consumers don’t get all of the benefits of the sales tax holiday. With higher demand on sales tax holiday weekends, retailers sometimes raise prices.